External surface

Osseointegration is needed in order to create a durable stability of the implant in the bone. In order to intensify the osseointegration, the implants must go through a series of processes:

The first process is blasting the implant, using abrasive particles containing Alumina, in order to create a rougher surface area. In general, cells adhere better onto rough surfaces and the deep pits created by the blasting procedure, act as retentive pockets for newly formed bone.

The second process is the cleaning of the implants using a special technique to keep the Titanium in its original composition. This prevents foreign materials from being captured between the titanium surface and the bone. After the final cleaning of the Titanium, when in contact with the air, an oxidized layer of 50-2000Å Ti-Oxide is being created on the implant's surface. This layer is inert biologically and isolates the Titanium, defending it from further chemical reactions. Pure Titanium or alloy implants keep this layer without fraction or corrosion under physiological conditions. This thin layer will be the one that determines the implant-tissue connection, and not the metal itself.
This process prevents a situation where a fundamental change in the composition of material on the implant's surface will change the Bone-Implant connection.